Microcystins: An Emerging Biomarker and Toxicity Prediction in Human and Animal

International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT)
© 2016 by IJBTT Journal
Volume - 6 Issue - 2                          
Year of Publication : 2016
Authors : Kailash Prasad Jaiswal, A.S. Yadav, Ragini Gothalwal

Kailash Prasad Jaiswal, A.S. Yadav, Ragini Gothalwal "Microcystins: An Emerging Biomarker and Toxicity Prediction in Human and Animal", International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT), V6(2): 1-8 Apr - Jun 2016, Published by Seventh Sense Research Group.


Microcystins (MCs) are cyanotoxins produced mainly by the Microcystis species and are reported to be hepatotoxic. The toxicity on exposure to MCs was reported worldwide in fish, animals and in humans for over a century. The findings of investigation revealed that about 100 known variants of MCs till date and of them the most toxic and widely distributed MC is Microcystin-LR (MCLR). Epidemiological studies is linked the exposure to MCs (MC-LR) with high incidence of liver cancer (hepatotoxic) and a potent tumour promoter. The microcystins biomarker for microcystins toxicity prediction in human domestic and wild animal has been reported to detect MCs toxicity. The biomarkers for biochemical alterations in the human and animal cells also suggests tools to be develop, validate existing methods to detect MCs and its biomarkers in body fluids of living beings. The microcystin toxin, biotransformation and oxidative stress parameters have been most extensively investigated. The present review deals with the emerging use of MCs as Biomarkers for toxicity prediction and recent development in this area.


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Emerging biomarkers, hepatotoxicity.