Comprehensive study on reduction of toxicity of pollutants by microbial transformation

 
 
International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT)
 
© 2016 by IJBTT Journal
Volume - 6 Issue - 1                          
Year of Publication : 2016
Authors : Oishee Chatterjee, Sanchit Seth

Oishee Chatterjee, Sanchit Seth "Comprehensive study on reduction of toxicity of pollutants by microbial transformation", International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT), V6(1): 1-12 Jan - Mar 2016, Published by Seventh Sense Research Group.

Abstract

As the world is becoming more advanced in the field of technology and mankind is backing intensively on various resources like petroleum, metal mines and non-renewable carbon sources, thus the environment is getting devastated by the excessive generation of toxic compounds, either as waste products or by-products. Quite a large number of microbes have the ability to transform these toxic pollutants into easily degradable reduced forms. This review basically aims at tabulating principal characteristics of various microorganisms which possess affinity towards toxic substances based on a number of biotic and abiotic factors like pH, temperature, functional groups, competition and moisture content. It classifies aerobic and anaerobic microbes on the basis of their role in biodegradation of organic, inorganic or radioactive pollutants and summarises different microbes used for reducing major soil, water and petroleum pollutants. Thereafter, it focusses on the bioreactors used majorly for in-situ and ex-situ bioremediation. It finally gives an idea of the prime factors which govern the rate of degradation, knowledge of different metabolic and enzymatic pathways which together can further be used to genetically engineer new strains to effectively reduce various other recalcitrants for a sustainable future.

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Keywords
Pollutants, Reduction, Aerobic, Anaerobi, Microbes, Transformation, Bioremediation, Bioreactors.