In silico Interaction Studies of Melanoidin Pigments with ligands reveal preferential binding and their plausible roles in bioaccumulation and biomagnification

International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT)
© 2015 by IJBTT Journal
Volume - 5 Issue - 2                         
Year of Publication : 2015
Authors : S. N. Pruthvi, H. G. Nagendra

S. N. Pruthvi, H. G. Nagendra "In silico Interaction Studies of Melanoidin Pigments with ligands reveal preferential binding and their plausible roles in bioaccumulation and biomagnification", International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT), V5(2):1-7 Apr - Jun 2015, Published by Seventh Sense Research Group.


The presence of melanoidin polymers in the distillery effluent are considered as the main reason for its pitch dark brown colour and its recalcitrant nature. Such distillery effluents when disposed into water bodies lead to rapid dip in the photosynthetic activities and dissolved oxygen contents, gravely affecting the aquatic life. Melanoidin is xenobiotic in nature and the consumption of the dairy products, meat etc., from cattle/livestock sources, which inevitably depend on such contaminated water bodies, affects the health of not only humans, but also many veterinary species. The pumping of industrial effluents into those water sources, eventually results in biomagnification of the heavy metals like Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, and ligands like acrylamide, arsenic etc. The accumulation of these metals and ligands in such water bodies would trigger polymerization of melanoidin and lead to its buildup in the human system through various food chains. The higher order aggregates of melanoidins are considered as one of the causative agents of several skin allergies, lung ailments, and stomach disorders etc., including colon cancer in humans. Thus, recognizing the fact that heavy metals and certain ligands amplify the concentrations of melanoidin and activate the conversion of lower molecular weight forms into more hazardous higher order aggregates, interactions studies were carried out to investigate the modes of ligand binding to melanodins. The results delineate the nature of molecular interactions, and highlight their importance inbioaccumulation and biomagnifications, towards designing cost-effective strategies that could be innovatively developed, to solve this perennial environmental risk.


[1] CPCB, Annual Report, Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi, 2009.
[2] Kyoung-Hun Kim and Son-Ki Ihm, ―Heterogeneous catalytic wet air oxidation of refractory organic pollutants in industrial wastewaters: A review, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2010, 186, 16-34.
[3] Khairnar Purushottam, Chavan Farooque, and Dr. V. R. Diware, ―Generation Of Energy From Distillery Waste Water,pratibha: International Journal of Science, Spirituality, Business and Technology (IJSSBT) November 2013, Vol. 2, 29- 35
[4] Murthy Z. V. P. and Chaudhari L. B., ―Treatment of distillery spent wash by combined UF and RO processes, Global NEST Journal , 2009, 11, 235-240.
[5] Saha N. K., Balakrishnan M., and Batra V. S., ―Improving industrial water use: case study for an Indian distillery, Resources Conservation Recycling, 2005, 43, 163-174.
[6] Pant D. and Adholeya A., ―Biological approaches for treatment of distillery wastewater: a review, Bioresource Technology 2006, 98, 2321-2334.
[7] Belkacemi K., Larachi F., Hamoudi S., and Sayari A., ―Catalytic wet oxidation of high strength alcohol distillery liquors, Applied Catalysis A: General, 2000, 199, 199–209.
[8] Sangve P. C. and Pandit A. B., ―Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biodegradability of the distillery wastewater, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2004, 11, 197-203.
[9] Anita Rani santal and Nater Pal Singh, ―Biodegradation of Melanoidin from Distillery Effluent: Role of Microbes and Their Potential Enzymes, Intech, 2013, Chapter 5, 71-104.
[10] Chandra R, Bharagava RN, and Rai V., ―Melanoidins as Major Colorant in Sugarcane Molasses Based Distillery Effluent and its Degradation,Bioresource Technology, 2008 , 99-4648.
[11] Kumar V, Wati L, Nigam P, Banat I. M., MacMullan G, Singh D, and Marchant R. ,―Microbial Decolorization and Bioremediation of Anaerobically Digested Molasses Spent Wash Effluent by Aerobic Bacterial Culture, Microbios, 1997, 89-81.
[12] Shatsky M, Nussinov R, and Wolfson H. J, ―A method for simultaneous alignment of multiple protein structures, Proteins, vol. 2004, 56, no. 1, pp. 143–156.
[13] Francis FitzGibbon, Dalel Singh, Geoff McMullan, and Roger Marchant. ―The Effect of Phenolic Acids and Molasses Spent Wash Concentration on Distillery Wastewater Remediation by Fungi, Process Biochemistry, 1998, 33(8), 799-803.
[14] Joshi H.C, Pathak H, Choudhary A, and Kalra N. ―Distillery effluent as a source of plant nutrients, Fertilizer News, 1996, 41(11), 41-47.
[15] Dr. Rakhi Chaudhary and Mahima Arora, ―study on distillery effluent: chemical analysis and impact onEnvironment, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology, April-June, 2011, Vol.II/ Issue II, 352-356.
[16] Pandey R. A., Malhotra A., Tankhiwale S., Pande S., Pathe P. P., and Kaul S. N., ―Treatment of biologically treated distillery effluent—a case study, International Journal of Environmental Study, 2003, 60, 263–275
[17] Handa B.K. and R. Seth., ―Waste management in distillery industry, Journal IAEM, 1990, 17, 44-55.
[18] Yogini G.Deshpande, Balankhe, Sudhir.V. Shivanikar, and Anand R. Ashturkar, ―waste water effluent treatment and its disposal from ahmednagar district maharashtra state, J.Aqua.Biol., 2011, Vol. 26(1), 37-40.
[19] Rajor A., Kalia P and Mathur R.P., ―Polishing of treated spentwash by fungal strains, Research Journal Chemistry Environment, 2003, 7(2) 59-75.
[20] Francisco J Morales, Cristina Fernandez-Fraguas, and Salvio Jiminez-perez, ―Iron-binding ability of melanoidins from food and model systems, Food Chemistry, May 2005, Vol. 90(4), 821-827.
[21] Silvia Pastoriza, Jose angel Rufian-Henares, and Francisco J Morales, ―Reactivity of acrylamide with coffee melanoidins in model systems, LWT- Food science and technology,2012, 45, 198-203.
[22]Chaurasia N, Mishra A, Pandey SK, ―Finger Print of Arsenic Contaminated Water in India-A Review, J Forensic Res 3.172 ,2012, volume 3,1-4.
[23]Sinha R K, Samir kumarsinha, Kedia D K, AnupamaKumari, Nipunika Rani, Gopalsharma, Prasad K, ―A Holistic study on mercury pollution in the Ganga River system at Varanasi, India., Current Science ,10 May 2007, volume 92(9),1223-1228.
[24]Buranasilp K and Charoenpanich J, ―Biodegradation of acrylamide by Enterobacteraerogenes isolated from wastewater in Thailand, Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2011, 23(3), 396–403.
[25]Wang CC and Lee CM, ―Denitrification with acrylamide by pure culture of bacteria isolated from aacrylonitrile-butadienestryrene resin manufactured wastewater system, Chemosphere, 2001, Aug 2001, 44(5), 1047-53.

Melanoidin, industrial effluents, bioaccumulation, ligand interactions.