In silico Interaction Studies of Melanoidin Pigments with ligands reveal preferential binding and their plausible roles in bioaccumulation and biomagnification

 
 
International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT)
 
© 2015 by IJBTT Journal
Volume - 5 Issue - 2                         
Year of Publication : 2015
Authors : S. N. Pruthvi, H. G. Nagendra

S. N. Pruthvi, H. G. Nagendra "In silico Interaction Studies of Melanoidin Pigments with ligands reveal preferential binding and their plausible roles in bioaccumulation and biomagnification", International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT), V5(2):1-7 Apr - Jun 2015, Published by Seventh Sense Research Group.

Abstract

The presence of melanoidin polymers in the distillery effluent are considered as the main reason for its pitch dark brown colour and its recalcitrant nature. Such distillery effluents when disposed into water bodies lead to rapid dip in the photosynthetic activities and dissolved oxygen contents, gravely affecting the aquatic life. Melanoidin is xenobiotic in nature and the consumption of the dairy products, meat etc., from cattle/livestock sources, which inevitably depend on such contaminated water bodies, affects the health of not only humans, but also many veterinary species. The pumping of industrial effluents into those water sources, eventually results in biomagnification of the heavy metals like Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr, and ligands like acrylamide, arsenic etc. The accumulation of these metals and ligands in such water bodies would trigger polymerization of melanoidin and lead to its buildup in the human system through various food chains. The higher order aggregates of melanoidins are considered as one of the causative agents of several skin allergies, lung ailments, and stomach disorders etc., including colon cancer in humans. Thus, recognizing the fact that heavy metals and certain ligands amplify the concentrations of melanoidin and activate the conversion of lower molecular weight forms into more hazardous higher order aggregates, interactions studies were carried out to investigate the modes of ligand binding to melanodins. The results delineate the nature of molecular interactions, and highlight their importance inbioaccumulation and biomagnifications, towards designing cost-effective strategies that could be innovatively developed, to solve this perennial environmental risk.

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Keywords
Melanoidin, industrial effluents, bioaccumulation, ligand interactions.