Toxicological Pathology of Juvenilecatfish Exposed to Petrol

 
 
International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT)
 
© 2015 by IJBTT Journal
Volume - 5 Issue - 1                          
Year of Publication : 2015
Authors : Amadi N. C., Umoh, I. A., Essien U. N., Awom E. I.

Amadi N. C., Umoh, I. A., Essien U. N., Awom E. I. "Toxicological Pathology of Juvenilecatfish Exposed to Petrol", International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT), V5(1):38-42 Jan - Mar 2015, Published by Seventh Sense Research Group.

Abstract

Heterobranchuslongifilis juveniles weighing 22.2 were acclimatized for seven (7) days with daily renewal of water to maintain good physico-chemical quality of water suitable for the fish. Acute toxicity test of refined petroleum product (petrol) was carried out in the laboratory to determine its effect on juveniles of Heterobranchus longifilis. Different concentration were obtained through exploratory test of 1ml of toxicant in 9ml of water,1ml of toxicant in 99ml of water, 1ml of toxicant in 999ml of water, The research was carried out using five (5) concentrations, (4.0ppm, 8.0ppm, 10.0ppm and 12.0ppm) of petrol, and a control, replicated three (3) times. Results showed behavioral changes, organ abnormalities and that petrol was toxic to the test fish even at the lowest tested concentration. Percentage mortality of 90%, 70%, 50%, 30% and 10% was recorded in 12.0ppm, 10.0ppm, 8.0ppm, 6.0ppm and 4.0ppm concentration of petrol at 96 hours exposure respectively. The result also showed that the mortality of Heterobranchus longifilis juveniles exposed to petrol in water increased with increase in concentration and time of exposure. The liver showed vacuolar degeneration in the hepatocytes, focal areas of necrosis and fibrosis, aggregations of inflammatory cells between the hepatocytes, dilation and congestion in blood sinusoids and thrombosis formation in the central veins, while the muscle tissues were moderately affected after the exposure. The entire test organisms in the control showed no histological abnormalities, while their staining patterns and cellular arrangement remained unaffected. The tissue was viewed under digital light microscope at the magnification of (X100 and 400).

References

[1] Botello, A.V., Villanueva, S.F. and Diaz, G.G. (1997).Petroleum pollution in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Reviews of EnvironmentContaminationandToxicology, 153: 91-118.
[2] Neff, J.M. (1979). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Wang, M. E. and Zhou, Q. X. (2006b). Effects ofthe Aquatic Environment Sources, Fates and Biological Effects. Applied Science, Barking, Essex.England, 262pages.
[3] De la Torre, F.R., Salibian, A. and L. Ferrari, L. (2000). Biomarkers assessment in juvenile Cyprinus carpio exposed to waterborne cadmium. Environmental Pollution, 109: 277-282.
[4] Sikkema, J., De Bont, J.A. and Poolman, B. ( 1994). Interactions of cyclic hydrocarbons with biological membranes, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 269: 8022-8028.
[5] Lopes, P.A., Pinheiro, T., Santos, M.C., da Luz Mathias, M., Collares-Pereira, M.J. and Viegas-Crespo, A.M. ( 2000). Response of antioxidant enzymes in freshwater fish populations (Leuciscusal burnoidescomplex) to inorganic pollutants exposure. Science of the Total Environment, 280: 153-163.
[6] Anyakora, C., Ogbeche, A., Palme, P. and Coker, H. (2005). Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in marine samples of Siokolo Fishing Settlement. Journal of Chromatography, 1073(1-2): 323-30.
[7] Itah A .Y and Essien J.P (2005).Growth Profile and Hydrocarbonoclastic Potential of Micro-organisms Isolated From Tarballs in the Bight of Bonny, Nigeria” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (Kluwer Academic) 21(6-7);1317- 1322.
[8] Helm, J. (1980). The changing lube market. LubricationEng., 39: 81- 88.
[9] Dutta, H.M., 1996. A composite approach for evaluation of the effects of pesticides on Fish. In: Fish Morphology, Munshi, J.S.D. and H.M. Dutta (Eds.). Science Publishers Inc., India. pp . 52-75
[10] Health, A.G. (1995). Water Pollution and Fish Physiology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 245 pages.
[11] Erondu, E. S., Nnubia, C. and Nwadukwe, F. O. (1993). Heamatological Studies on four catfish species raised in freshwater ponds in Nigeria. Journal of Applied Icathyology, 9:250-256.
[12] Nwadukwe, F. O. (1993). Inducing oocyte maturation, ovulation and spawning in the African catfish Heterobranchus longifilis Valenciennes (Pisces: Clariidea) using frog pituitary extract. Aquaculture Fish Management, 24:625-630.
[13] Van, Dyk J. C. (2003). Histological changes in the liver of Oreochromis mossambicus (Cichlidae) after exposure to cadmium and zinc. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 66;432-440.
[14] Sprague, J.B. (1972). A Symposium of Environmental Monitoring in Los Angeles, California, pp. 1-42.
[15] Gurure, R.M. (1987). Influence of two organochloride pesticides, thiodan and lindance on survival of fingerlings of O. niloticus and T. zilli. African Regional Aquaculture Centre Working Paper ARAC/WP.6/87.
[16] OECD (Organization For Economic Cooperation and Development).1992. OECD Guideline 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test. Paris
[17] FAO, (1984). Meeting on the toxicity and bioaccumulation of selected substances in marine organisms. FAO Fisheries Report, No334, Rovinj, Yugoslavia, 5-9 Nov. FIR/R334.
[18] EIFAC, (1983).European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission Revised Report on Fish Toxicity testing Procedures, EIFAC Technical paper No.24 revision 1.
[19] Nabila, E. A., Hassan, E. A., Ibrahim, A. M. and Nabiha, A. Y. (2009). Ultrastructural changes in Hepatopancreas of Palemon serratus, following treatment with Petroleum Carcinogenic Compounds. PakistanJournalofNutrition,8: 770-81.
[20] Van, Dyk J. C. (2003). Histological changes in the liver of Oreochromis mossambicus (Cichlidae) after exposure to cadmium and zinc. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 66;432-440.

Keywords
Toxicology, Pathology, Heterobranchus longifilis, Petrol.