Evaluation of In-vitro Antioxidant and Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of selected Indian plants

International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT)
© 2012 by IJBTT Journal
Volume - 2 Issue - 4                          
Year of Publication : 2012
Authors :Rajeswari Hari, Vasuki. R, Gyan Prakash Prasoon, Hari Prakash Singh, Nishant Mishra


Rajeswari Hari, Vasuki. R, Gyan Prakash Prasoon, Hari Prakash Singh, Nishant Mishra "Evaluation of In-vitro Antioxidant and Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of selected Indian plants",International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT), V2(4):1-9 October - December 2012. Published by Seventh Sense Research Group.


In the present investigation an attempt was made to find a new herbal derived material with potential Xanthine oxidase inhibitory and free radical scavenging activities. We have screened the Ethanolic extracts of 10 medicinal plants belonging 8 families, regardless of their claimed ethanopharmacological and /or food uses for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. The Super oxide, Nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity and Total antioxidant activity of these extracts were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Total phenolic and flavanoid content were also determined. The Xanthine oxidase enzyme inhibitory and the antioxidant activity of Ethanolic plant extract were found to be in the following order. Piper nigrum > Brassica juncea > Cuminum cyminum > Cinnamomum zeylanicum > Coriandrum sativum > Cinnamomum tamala > Nigella sativa > Elettaria cardamomum > Syzygium aromaticum > Prunus amygdalus. Among these plant extracts the three plants namely Piper nigrum ,Cuminum cyminum and Brassica juncea were found to be most active for the above said activities. The quantitative estimation of revealed the considerable amount of phenols and flavanoids which may be attributed for its antioxidant activity through the inhibition of Xanthine oxidase enzyme. The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders.


1. Ukeda H. In “Recent Research Developments in Analytical Biochemistry. Ed. India: Transworld Research Network; 2001.P 56.
2. Remacle J, Raes M, Toussaint O, Renard P, Rao G. Low levels of reactive oxygen species as modulators of cell function. Mutat Res; 1995; 316: 103-122.
3. Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M, Telser J. Free radicals and anti oxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2007; 39:44-84.
4. Oettl K, Reibnegger G. Pteridines as inhibitors of Xanthine oxidase: structural requirements. Biochim Biophys Acta 1999; 1430: 387–95.
5. Chiang HC, Lo YJ, Lu FJ. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from the leaves of Alsophila spinulosa (Hook.) Tryon. J Enzyme Inhib 1994; 8: 61-71.
6. Klippel JH, Stone JH, Crofford LJ, White PH. Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases.13th ed. New York: Springer: 2008; 27(7):P 883-889.
7. Terkeltaub R.Gout. Novel therapies for treatment of gout and hyperuricemia. Arthritis Res Ther 2009;11:236
8. OsadaY, Tsuchimoto M, Fukushima H, Takahashi K, KondoS, Hasegawa M, Komoriya K.Hypouricemic effect of the novel Xanthine oxidse inhibitor,. TEI-6720, in rodents. Euro J Pharmacol 1993; 241:183-188.
9. Akaike T, Maeda H. Pathophysiological effects of high-output production of nitric oxide. In: Ignarro LJ, ed. San Diego: Academic Press: 2000; P733–45.
10. Cos P, Ying L, Calomme M, Hu JP, Cimanga K, Van Poel B, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ, Berghe DV. structure-activity relationship and classification of flavanoids as inhibitors of Xanthine oxidase and superoxide scavengers. J Nat Prod 1998;61:71-76.
11. Fridovich I. Quantitative aspects of the production of superoxide anion radical by milk xanthine oxidase. J Biol Chem 1970; 245:4053–7.
12. Berlett BS, Stadtman ER. Protein oxidation in aging, disease, and oxidative stress. J Biol Chem 1997;272: 20313–6.
13. Kong LD, Cai Y, Huang W, Cheng C, Tan R. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by some Chinese medicinal plants used to treat gout. J Ethnopharmacol 2000: 73: 199- 207.
14. Filha ZS, Vitolo IF, Fietto LG, Lombardi JA, Saude-Guimaraes DA. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Lychnophora species from Brazil (“Arnica”). J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 107: 79-82.
15. Sweeney AP, Wyllie SG, Halliker RA, Markham JL. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of selected Australian native plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2001; 75: 273-277.
16. Owen P, Johns T.Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of north eastern North American plant remedies used for gout. J Ethnopharmacol 1999; 64: 149-160.
17. Valentao P, Frenandes E, Carvalho F, Andrade BP, Seabra RM, Bastos ML.Studies on the antioxidant activity of Lippia citriodora infusion: scavenging effect on super oxide radical, hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid. Biol Pharm Bull 2002;25:1324– 1327.
18. Marcocci L, Maguire JJ, Droy-Lefaix MT, Packer L. The nitric oxide scavenging Properties of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761.Biochem Biophy Res Commun1994; 201:748.
19. Ruch KJ, Cheng SJ, Klauning JE. Prevention of cytotoxicity and inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidant catechin isolated from Chinese green tea.Carcinogenesis1989;10:1003.
20. Mitsuda H, Yasumodo K, Iwami F. Antioxidant action of indole compounds during the autoxidation of linoleic acid. Eiyo to Shokuryo 1996;19:210–214.
21. Slinkard J, Singleton VL. Total phenol analysis: automation and comparison with manual methods. Am J Enol Vitic1977; 28:49.
22. Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem1999;64:555.
23. Hsu PC, Guo YL. Antioxidant nutrients and lead toxicity.Toxicol 2002; 180(1): 33-44.
24. Hayden MR, Tyagi SC. Uric acid - A new look at an old risk marker for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and Type II D.M. Nutr Metab 2004; 1:10.
25. Reshmi SK Sathya E, Suganya Devi P. Isolation of piperdine from Piper nigrum and its antiproliferative activity. Afri J Pharm Pharmacol 2010;4(8):562-573.
26. Hyun Ah Jung, Ju Jung Woo, Mee Jung Jung, Geum-Sook Hwang;Jae Sue Choi. Kaempferol glycosides with antioxidant activity from Brassica juncea. Arch Pharm Res 2010; 32:1379-1384.
27. Hemnani T, Parihar MS. Reactive oxygen species and oxidative DNA damage.Ind J Physiol Pharmacol 1998;42:440.
28. Mahakunakorn P, Tollda M, Mcrakami Y, Matsumoto K, Watanabe H. Antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activity of Choto-san and its related constituents.Bio Pharm Bulle 2005;28: 53-57.
29. Md. Nazrul Islam Bhuiyan, Jaripa Begum, Mahbuba Sultana.Chemical composition of leaf and seed essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. from Bangladesh. Bangladesh. J Pharmacol 2009; 4:150-15.
30. Jiang P, Burczynski C, Campbell G, Pierce JA, Austria CJ, Briggs. Rutin and flavonoid contents in three buckwheat species Fagopyrum esculentum, F. tataricum, and F. homotropicum and their protective effects against lipid peroxidation.Food Res Int 2007;40:356-364.
31. Robards K, Antolovvich M. Analytical chemistry of fruit bio-flavanoids. A review. Analyst1997;122:11.
32. Pietta PG. Flavonoids as antioxidants. J Nat Prod 2000; 63:1035.

Free radical scavenging, Total antioxidant, Xanthine oxidase.