Neuronal Cells as an Ideal Model for Neurodegenerative Diseases.
||International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT)|
|© 2016 by IJBTT Journal|
|Volume - 6 Issue - 4
|Year of Publication : 2016|
|Authors : Pallav Kaushik Deshpande, Ragini Gothalwal|
|DOI : 10.14445/22490183/IJBTT-V19P606|
Pallav Kaushik Deshpande, Ragini Gothalwal "Neuronal Cells as an Ideal Model for Neurodegenerative Diseases.", International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT), V6(4): 26-33 Oct - Dec 2016, Published by Seventh Sense Research Group.
Neurodegenerative diseases are pathological conditions that have an insidious onset and chronic progression. Different models have been established to study these diseases in order to understand their underlying mechanisms and to investigate new therapeutic strategies. Although various in vivo models are currently in use, in vitro models might provide important insights about the pathogenesis of these disorders and represent an interesting approach for the screening of potential pharmacological agents. In vitro models of these pathological conditions offer advantages over in vivo models in several aspects. First, it is possible to study the role of isolated cells of one particular type in an environment that simulates the disease and to investigate mechanisms of a possible deleterious or protective role of specific molecules and compounds. Second, screening for potential actions of drugs is also facilitated. Primary midbrain dopaminergic neurons are suitable to study dopaminergic cell survival and neurite retraction as well as regeneration. Usually, embryonic midbrain neurons from embryonic day 14 to 18 (E14-18) are ideal to culture initiation. A high yield of dopaminergic neurons can be obtained, which can be exposed to various neurodegenerative stimuli. In vitro models of neurodegenerative processes can provide important clues about mechanisms of the diseases and potential pharmacological targets.
1. K. Semendeferi ,E. Armstrong , A.Schleicher , K. Zilles , G.W. Van Hoesen , Prefrontal cortex in humans and apes: A comparative study of area 10. American Journal of Physiology . Anthropology;114, 224–241.2001.
2. M.A. Dichter, Rat cortical neurons in cell culture: Culture methods, cell morphology, electrophysiology, and synapse formation. Brain Res ;149:279–93.1978.
3. M.R. Murray,Nervous tissues in vitro. In: Willmer EN, editor. Cells and Tissues in Culture: Methods, Biology, and Physiology, vol. 2. New York: Academic 1965.pp 373-455.1965.
4. R.E.Mains , P.H. Patterson ,Primary cultures of dissociated sympathetic neurons: I. Establishment of long-term growth in culture and studies of differentiated properties. Journal of Cell Biology;59:329–45.1973 5.
6. M.Ferro, A. Doyl , Standardisation for in vitro toxicity tests. Cell Biology and Toxicology.17, 205-212.2001.
7. J.M. Frazier , Validation of in vitro toxicity tests. In In vitro toxicity testing, J.M.Frazier, ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc.), pp. 245-252.1992.
8. G. Stacey , B. Viviani ,Cell culture models for neurotoxicology. Cell Biology and Toxicology; 17, 319-334.2001.
9. K. Mochida , M. Gomyoda , T. Fujita , K.Yamagata , Tricresyl phosphate and triphenyl phosphate are toxic to cultured human, monkey and dog cells. Zentralbl. Bacteriology Microbiology Hygygine . B 185, 427-429.1988.
10. W. Niu , T. Zang ,Y. Zou ,S. Fang ,D.K. Smith , R. Bachoo , C.L. Zhang ,In vivo reprogramming of astrocytes to neuroblasts in the adult brain. Nature Cell Biology,15:1164-1175.2013.
11. Z. Su ,W. Niu ,M.L. Liu, Y. Zou , C.L. Zhang , In vivo conversion of astrocytes to neurons in the injured adult spinal cord. Nature Communication; 5:33-38.2014.
12. Z. Guo ,L. Zhang ,Z. Wu , Y.Chen ,F. Wang ,G. Chen ,In vivo direct reprogramming of reactive glial cells into functional neurons after brain injury and in an Alzheimer’s disease model. Cell Stem Cell , 14:188-202.2014.
13. C.Heinrich ,M. Bergami , S. Gascon ,A. Lepier ,F. Vigano , L. Dimou , B. Sutor , B. Beringer , M. Gotz ,Sox2-mediated conversion of NG2 glia into induced neurons in the injured adult cerebral cortex. Stem Cell Reports , 3:1000 -1014.2014.
14. O.Torper ,U. Pfisterer , D.A. Wolf ,M. Pereira , S.Lau , J. Jakobsson , A. Bjorklund , S. Grealish , M. Parmar ,Generation of induced neurons via direct conversion in vivo. Protocol Natural Academic Sciences U S A , 110: 7038-7043.2013.
15. A. Grande ,K. Sumiyoshi ,A. López-Juárez , J.Howard , B. Sakthivel ,B. Aronow , K.Campbell , M. Nakafuku , Environmental impact on direct neuronal reprogramming in vivo in the adult brain. Nature Communication; 4:2373.2013.
16. Luciano Conti , Elena Cattaneo. Neural stem cell systems: physiological players or in vitro entities? 12-01 00:14:16 Nature Reviews 2010.
17. S Fahn , Description of Parkinson’s disease as a clinical syndrome. Annals of New York Academics of Science;991:1-14.2003.
18. R.E. Burke , K. O’Malley, Axon degeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Experimental Neurology;246:72-83.2013.
19. Lashuel Hilal , R. Cassia . Overk, Abid Oueslati, Eliezer Masliah . The many faces of ?-synuclein: from structure and toxicity to therapeutic target. Nature Review Neuroscience ; 14(1): 38–48.2013.
20. O. Corti ,S. Lesage , A.Brice ,What genetics tells us about the causes and mechanisms of Parkinson’s disease. Physiology Rev;91:1161-218.2011.
21. M.H. Polymeropoulos , J.J. Higgins ,L.I. Golbe , W.G. Johnson ,S.E. Ide ., G.Di Iorio , Mapping of a gene for Parkinson’s disease to chromosome 4q21-q23. Science;274:1197-9.1996.
22. J.B.Schulz , Update on the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurology ;255:3-7.2008.
23. K. Takahashi , S. Yamanaka , Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell ;126:663-76.2006.
24. P. Lingor , K.Unsicker ,K. Krieglstein , Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are protected from radical induced damage by GDF-5 application. Short communication. Journal of Neural Transm ;106:139-44.1999.
25. D.Blum , S.Torch ,N. Lambeng ,M. Nissou ,A.L. Benabid , R. Sadoul , Molecular pathways involved in the neurotoxicity of 6-OHDA, dopamine and MPTP: contribution to the apoptotic theory in Parkinson’s disease. Prog Neurobiol;65:135-72.2001.
26. S.J. Tabrizi , M. Orth , J.M. Wilkinson , J.W. Taanman ,T.T. Warner, J.M. Cooper ,Expression of mutant alpha-synuclein causes increased susceptibility to dopamine toxicity.Human Molecular Genetics ;9:2683-9.2000.
27. F. Opazo , A. Krenz ,S. Heermann , J.B. Schulz , B.H. Falkenburger , Accumulation and clearance of alpha-synuclein aggregates demonstrated by time-lapse imaging. Journal of Neurochemistry ;106:529-40.2008.
28. M.J. Devine ,A. Kaganovich , M. Ryten ,A. Mamais , D.Trabzuni ,C Manzoni ,Pathogenic LRRK2 mutations do not alter gene expression in cell model systems or human brain tissue. PLoS One;6:e22489.2011.
29. K.M Danzer., L.R. Kranich ,W.P. Ruf ,O. Cagsal-Getkin ,A.R. Winslow ,L. Zhu ,Exosomal cell-to-cell transmission of alpha synuclein oligomers. Mol Neurodegener ;7:42.2012.
30. R.Constantinescu , A.T. Constantinescu , H.Reichmann ,B. Janetzky , Neuronal differentiation and long-term culture of the human neuroblastoma line SH-SY5Y. J Neural Transm Suppl. 17-28.2007.
31. S.J. Pleasure , C.Page ,V.M. Lee, Pure, postmitotic, polarized human neurons derived from NTera 2 cells provide a system for expressing exogenous proteins in terminally differentiated neurons. Journal of Neuroscience ;12:1802-15.1992.
32. G. Podrygajlo , Y. Song , F. Schlesinger , K. Krampfl , G. Bicker , Synaptic currents and transmitter responses in human NT2 neurons differentiated in aggregate culture. Neuroscience Letter ;468:207-10.2010.
33. J. Klucken ,T.F. Outeiro , P.Nguyen , P.J. McLean , B.T. Hyman , Detection of novel intracellular alpha-synuclein oligomeric species by fluorescence lifetime imaging. Faseb Journal ;20:2050-7.2006.
34. J. Klucken , A.M. Poehler ,D. Ebrahimi-Fakhari , J.Schneider ,S. Nuber , E. Rockenstein , Alpha-synuclein aggregation involves a bafilomycin A 1-sensitive autophagy pathway. Autophagy;8:754-66.2012.
35. M. Hoshimaru , J. Ray ,D.W. Sah , F.H. Gage , Differentiation of the immortalized adult neuronal progenitor cell line HC2S2 into neurons by regulatable suppression of the v-myc oncogene. Proceedings of Natural Academics of Science. U S A ;93:1518-23.1996.
36. J. Lotharius ,J. Falsig , J.van Beek , S. Payne ,R. Dringen , P. Brundin , Progressive degeneration of human mesencephalic neuronderived cells triggered by dopamine-dependent oxidative stress is dependent on the mixed-lineage kinase pathway. Journal of Neurosciences ;25:6329-42.2005.
37. S. Schildknecht ,D. Poltl ,D.M. Nagel , F.Matt ,D. Scholz , J.Lotharius , Requirement of a dopaminergic neuronal phenotype for toxicity of low concentrations of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium to human cells. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology;241:23-35.2009.
38. D. Scholz ,D. Poltl ,A. Genewsky ,M. Weng , T. Waldmann , S. Schildknecht ,Rapid, complete and large-scale generation of post-mitotic neurons from the human LUHMES cell line. Journal of Neurochemistry;119:957-71.2011.
39. C. Depboylu , M. Hollerhage ,S. Schnurrbusch ,P. Brundin , W.H. Oertel ,A. Schrattenholz , Neuregulin-1 receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB4 is upregulated in midbrain dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease. Neuroscience Letter ;531:209-14.2012.
40. J.Y. Li ,E. Englund ,J.L. Holton , D. Soulet , P. Hagell , A.J. Lees , Lewy bodies in grafted neurons in subjects with Parkinson’s disease suggest host-to-graft disease propagation. Natural Medicine .;14:501-3.2008.
41. P. Desplats , H.J.Lee ,E.J. Bae , C.Patrick , E. Rockenstein , L.Crews , Inclusion formation and neuronal cell death through neuron-toneuron transmission of alpha-synuclein. Proccedings of Nature Academic Science U S A ;106:13010-5.2009.
42. H.Braak, E. Braak, Neuropathological stageing of Alzheimer-related changes. Acta Neuropathology;82:239-59.1991.
43. S.T. DeKosky ,S.W. Scheff , Synapse loss in frontal cortex biopsies in Alzheimer’s disease: correlation with cognitive severity. Ann Neurol;27:457-64.1990.
44. A. Serrano-Pozo , M.P. Frosch , E. Masliah ,B.T. Hyman , Neuropathological alterations in Alzheimer disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med;1:a006189. 2011.
A. Serrano-Pozo , M.L. Mielke ,T. Gomez-Isla ,R.A. Betensky , J.H. Growdon ,M.P. Frosch, Reactive glia not only associates with plaques but also parallels tangles in Alzheimer’s disease. American Journal Pathology ;179:1373-84.2011.
45. D.T. Loo ,A. Copani ,C.J. Pike , E.R.Whittemore ,A.J. Walencewicz ,C.W. Cotman , Apoptosis is induced by beta-amyloid in cultured central nervous system neurons. Proceedings Natural Academics of Science U S A;90:7951-5.1993.
46. J. Nilsen , S.Chen , R.W. Irwin , S. Iwamoto , R.D. Brinton , Estrogen protects neuronal cells from amyloid beta-induced apoptosis via regulation of mitochondrial proteins and function. BMC Neurosciences ;7:74.2006.
47. J.C. Schlachetzki , M. Hull , Microglial activation in Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res ;6:554-63.2009.
48. A.K. Vehmas ,C.H. Kawas , W.F. Stewart , J.C. Troncoso ,Immune reactive cells in senile plaques and cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiology Aging ;24:321-31.2003.
49. M.L.Block ,L. Zecca,J.S. Hong ,Microglia-mediated neurotoxicity: uncovering the molecular mechanisms. Nat Rev Neurosci;8:57-69.2007.
50. H. Kettenmann , U.K. Hanisch , M.Noda , A. Verkhratsky , Physiology of microglia. Physiology Rev.;91:461-553.2011.
51. A. Seregi ,M. Keller , R. Jackisch ,G. Hertting ,Comparison of the prostanoid synthesizing capacity in homogenates from primary neuronal and astroglial cell cultures. Biochemistry and Pharmacology ;33:3315-8.1984.
52. M. Keller , R. Jackisch , A. Seregi ,G. Hertting ,Comparison of prostanoid forming capacity of neuronal and astroglial cells in primary cultures. Neurochemistry Int;7:655-65.1985.
53. D.Giulian , T.J.Baker , Characterization of ameboid microglia isolated from developing mammalian brain. Journal of Neurosciences ;6:2163-78.1986.
54. P.J. Gebicke-Haerter , J.Bauer ,A. Schobert ,H. Northoff , Lipopolysaccharide-free conditions in primary astrocyte cultures allow growth and isolation of microglial cells. Nal Journal of Neurosciences ;9:183-94.1989.
55. R.S. Akundi , E. Candelario-Jalil ,S. Hess ,M. Hull,K. Lieb ,P.J. Gebicke- Haerter ,Signal transduction pathways regulating cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-activated primary rat microglia. Glia;51:199-208.2005.
56. A.Klegeris , S. Pelech , B.I. Giasson , J. Maguire , H. Zhang , E.G. McGeer , Alpha-synuclein activates stress signaling protein kinases in THP-1 cells and microglia. Neurobiology Aging ;29:739-52.2008.
57. L. Rojanathammanee ,E.J.Murphy , C.K.Combs, Expression of mutant alpha-synuclein modulates microglial phenotype in vitro. Journal of Neuroinflammation;8:44.2011.
58. S.Cao ,D.G. Standaert , A.S.Harms , The gamma chain subunit of Fc receptors is required for alpha-synuclein-induced pro-inflammatory signaling in microglia. Journal of Neuroinflammation ;9:259.2012.
59. C.Y.Chen ,Y.H. Weng ,K.Y. Chien ,K.J. Lin ,T.H. Yeh ,Y.P. Cheng , (G2019S) LRRK2 activates MKK4-JNK pathway and causes degeneration of SN dopaminergic neurons in a transgenic mouse model of PD. Cell Death Differentiation ;19:1623-33.2012.
60. L. Fellner ,R. Irschick ,K. Schanda ,M. Reindl ,L. Klimaschewski ,W. Poewe ,Toll-like receptor 4 is required for alpha-synuclein dependent activation of microglia and astroglia. Glia ;61:349- 60.2013.
61. C.Kim ,D.H.Ho , J.E. Suk , S. You , S.Michael , J.Kang , Neuronreleased oligomeric alpha-synuclein is an endogenous agonist of TLR2 for paracrine activation of microglia. Nature Communication ;4:1562.2013.
62. I.Blasko, M. Stampfer-Kountchev, P. Robatscher ,R. Veerhuis ,P. Eikelenboom,B. Grubeck-Loebenstein , How chronic inflammation can affect the brain and support the development of Alzheimer’s disease in old age: the role of microglia and astrocytes. Aging Cell;3:169-76.2004.
63. S.E Hickman, E.K. Allison, El . J. Khoury , Microglial dysfunction and defective beta-amyloid clearance pathways in aging Alzheimer’s disease mice. Journal of Neurosciences. ;28:8354-60.2008.
64. A.C.de Oliveira , E.Candelario-Jalil ,J. Langbein , L. Wendeburg ,H.S. Bhatia , J.C.Schlachetzki , Pharmacological inhibition of Akt and downstream pathways modulates the expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 in activated microglia. Journal of Neuroinflammation;9:2.2012.
65. L. Wendeburg , A.C. de Oliveira , H.S. Bhatia , E. Candelario-Jalil ,B.L. Fiebich , Resveratrol inhibits prostaglandin formation in IL-1betastimulated SK-N-SH neuronal cells. Journal of Neuroinflammation;6:26.2009.
66. W.J. Streit , K.R. Miller ,K.O. Lopes ,E. Njie , Microglial degeneration in the aging brain--bad news for neurons? Front Biosciences;13:3423-38.2008.
67. A.Henn , S.Lund ,M. Hedtjarn , A. Schrattenholz , P.Porzgen , M.Leist , The suitability of BV2 cells as alternative model system for primary microglia cultures or for animal experiments examining brain inflammation. ALTEX ;26:83-94.2009.
68. U.A. Hirt ,M. Leist , Rapid, noninflammatory and PS-dependent phagocytic clearance of necrotic cells. Cell Death Differentiation ;10:1156-64.2003.
69. K. Saijo ,B. Winner, C.T. Carson ,J.G. Collier ,L. Boyer , M.G. Rosenfeld , A Nurr1/CoREST pathway in microglia and astrocytes protects dopaminergic neurons from inflammation-induced death. Cell;137:47-59.2009.
70. N. Esen , F.Y Tanga , J.A. DeLeo, T. Kielian , Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) mediates astrocyte activation in response to the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Neurochemistry ;88:746-58.2004.
71. H.J.Lee , J.E. Suk, C. Patrick , E.J. Bae ,J.H. Cho , S.Rho , Direct transfer of alpha-synuclein from neuron to astroglia causes inflammatory responses in synucleinopathies. Journal of Biological Chemistry ;285:9262-72.2010.
72. C.Heinrich , S.Gascon , G.Masserdotti , A. Lepier ,R. Sanchez ,T. Simon-Ebert , Generation of subtype-specific neurons from postnatal astroglia of the mouse cerebral cortex. Nature Protocol ;6:214-28.2011.
73. J. Saura , Microglial cells in astroglial cultures: a cautionary note. Journal of Neuroinflammation ;4:26.2007.
74. B.A. Barres , The mystery and magic of glia: a perspective on their roles in health and disease. Neuron; 60:430-40.2008.
75. H.K. Kimelberg , Functions of mature mammalian astrocytes: a current view. Neuroscientist ;16:79-106.2010.
76. J. Saura ,E. Angulo , A. Ejarque , V. Casado , J.M. Tusell , R. Moratalla , Adenosine A2A receptor stimulation potentiates nitric oxide release by activated microglia. Journal of Neurochemistry;95:919-29.2005.
77. A. Waschbisch ,B.L. Fiebich , R.S. Akundi , M.L. Schmitz ,J.J. Hoozemans ,E. Candelario-Jalil ,Interleukin-1 beta-induced expression of the prostaglandin E-receptor subtype EP3 in U373 astrocytoma cells depends on protein kinase C and nuclear factor-kappa B. Journal of Neurochemistry;96:680-93.2006.
Neurodegenerative disease, Neuronal cells, Dopaminergic, Pharmaceutical targets.