Toxicity Experiment to Access the Impact of Petrochemical Organic and Inorganic Contaminants on the Seed Germination and Growth of Pennisetum pedicellatum
||International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT)|
|© 2016 by IJBTT Journal|
|Volume - 6 Issue - 3
|Year of Publication : 2016|
|Authors : Sheetal Koul, M.H. Fulekar|
Sheetal Koul, M.H. Fulekar "Toxicity Experiment to Access the Impact of Petrochemical Organic and Inorganic Contaminants on the Seed Germination and Growth of Pennisetum pedicellatum", International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT), V6(3): 5-12 Jul - Sep 2016. Published by Seventh Sense Research Group.
Research in recent years has proved “phytoremediation” as a promising technology for clean-up of petroleum contaminated soils. The present study has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of grass Pennisetum pedicellatum as a potential plant for phytoremediation of organic and heavy metal contaminants. Seed germination and root/shoot biomass is one of the commonly used bioassay for eco-toxicity evaluation and selection of the plants for their prospective use in phytoremediation. The effect of PAH compounds (anthracene and phenanthrene); heavy metals (Zn,Cd and Pb) separately and in combination on the seed germination of Pennisetum pedicellatum was investigated using PAH and heavy metal spiked soil at the concentrations of 25,50,75 and 100 mg/kg, for a period of 30 days along with unspiked soil as control. It was observed that Pennisetum pedicellatum could efficiently tolerate and survive at a high concentration of 100mg/kg of PAH compounds, however a constant decline in the germination rate was observed if the same was compared to control. Higher concentration of contaminant especially heavy metals showed negative effect on root-shoot biomass of the plant, root length was more affected by metals than shoot length. Toxicity of heavy metals towards seed germination and elongation trial was Cd>Pb>Zn. The research findings suggest that heavy metal contamination proved to be more toxic to the plant than co-contamination (heavy metal and organic compounds) and organic contamination alone. Based on these results Pennisetum pedicellatum is recommended for follow-up investigations which could further develop the application of phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils.
 Akpoveta O.V,and Osakwe S.A, “Determination of Heavy Metal Contents in Refined Petroleum Products”,IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry.,vol.7(6),pp.01-02, 6, 2014.
 Garba S.T, Nkafaminya I, Barminas J.T, “Phytoremediation: Influence of different level of EDTA on the phytoextraxction ability of Pennisetum Pedicellatum for the metals; cadmium and zinc”, International journal of Engineering and management sciences. vol.4 (2), pp.92-97, 2013.
 Michael U.O, Matthew O.W, Edward O.A, “An Assessment of Some Heavy Metal Elements in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils Remediated By Some Wild-Type Legumes”, International Journal of Engineering Science Invention. vol 2 (1), pp. 37-42, 2013.
 Muhammad,shafiq,et al, “Effect of lead and cadmium on germination and seedling growth of Leucaena leucocephala”, journal of Applied sciences and environmental. Management, vol 12 (2), pp. 61-66, 2008.
 Chirakkara R.A, et al, “Synergistic Effects of Organic and Metal Contaminants on Phytoremediation”, in Geo- Congress 2014 Technical Papers,pp. 1703-1712.
 Besalatpour A, Khoshgoftarmanesh A.H, et al, “Germination and growth of selected plants in a petroleum contaminated calcareous soil”, Soil and sediment contamination, vol.17, pp.665-676, 2008.
 Mezzari M.P, Zimermann D.M.H, et al, “Potential of Grasses and Rhizosphere bacteria for Bioremediation of Diesel-Contaminated soils”,R.Bras.Ci.Solo, vol. 35, pp2227-2236,2011.
 Nicole Merkl, Rainer S.K,Carmen Infante, “Assessment of tropical grasses and legumes for phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils”,Water,Air and Soil pollution, vol.165,pp195-209,2005.
 Gleba Doloressa, Borisjuk N.V, et al, “Use of plant roots for phytoremediation and molecular farming” in National Academy of Sciences colloquium Plants and Population: Is There Time? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol.96, pp. 5973–5977, 1999.
 Kirk J.L,Kironomos J.N, et al., “Phytotoxicity Assay to Assess Plant Species for phytoremediation of petroleumcontaminated soil. Bioremediation journal, vol.6 (1), pp.57-63, 2002.
 Komives Tamas, and Gullner Gabor, “Dendroremediation: The Use of Trees In Cleaning Up Polluted Soils”, Phytoremediation Rhizoremediation, Springer,pp. 23-31, 2006.
 Aprill W, and Sims R.C, “Evaluation of the use of prairie grasses for stimulating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon treatment in soil”, Chemosphere, vol.20, pp.253-265, 1990.
 Adam G, and Duncan H, “Influence of diesel fuel on seed germination”. Journal of Environmental Pollution, vol.120, pp.363-370, 2002.
 Kim J.Yand Cho K.S, “Bioremediation of oilcontaminated soil using rhizobacteria and plants”. Korean journal of microbio biotechnology, vol.34, pp.185-195, 2006.
 Pichtel .J and Liskanen .P, “Degradation of diesel fuel in rhizosphere soil”, Environ.Eng.Sci, vol. 18, pp.145-157, 2001.
 Siddiqui S.W, Adams.A, “The fate of diesel hydrocarbons in soils and their effect on the germination of perennial ryegrass”, Environ. Toxicology. vol.16 (1), pp.49-62, 2002.
 Ogbo E.M, “Effects of diesel fuel contamination on seedgermination of four cropplants- Arachis hypogaea, Vigna unguiculata, Sorghum bicolor and zea mays”, African journal of Biotechnology,vol.8(2),pp.250- 253,2009.
 Marques.M, Rosa G.S, et al, “Seedling Emergence and Biomass Growth of Oleaginousand Other Tropical Species in Oil Contaminated Soil”, The Open Waste Management Journal, vol.3, pp.26-32, 2010.
 Garba S.T, Maina .H, et al, “Assessment of the Natural ability and Chelator-enhanced Phytoextraction of the metals: Cu,Ni,Se, and Pb by Pennisetum pedicellatum”, Journal of Basic and Applied Chemistry,vol.1(9),pp.91- 97,2011.
 Dube K.K, Fulekar M.H, “Effect of Pesticides on the seed germination of Cenchrus setigerus and Pennisetum pedicellatum as Monocropping and co-cropping system: Implications for Rhizospheric Bioremediation”, Romania Biotechnological Letters, vol.16 (1)5909-5918, 2011.
 APHA,AWWA,WPCF, Standard Methods for the Examination of water and wastewater, American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/water Environmental Fedration,Washington DC,1998.
 Nelson D.W, and L.E. Sommers, “Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2” Chemical and Microbiological Properties, pp.539-579. 1982.
 Smith M.J,Flowers T.H,Duncab H.Jand Alder.J, “Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on germination and subsequent growth of grasses and legumes in freshly contaminated soil with aged PAHs residues”, Environ.Pollut,vol.141(3), pp.519-525,2006.
 Korade D.L, Fulekar M. H, “Effect of organic contaminants on seed germination of Lolium multiflorum in soil”, Biology and medicine, vol. 1(1), pp.28-34, 2009.
 Araujo A. S. F, Monteiro R. T.R., “Plant bioassays to asses toxicity of textile sludge compost”, Scientia Agricola Piracicaba, Bra, .vol. 62 (3) pp. 286-290, 2005.
 Chandra .P and Kulshreshtha .K, “Chromium accumulation and toxicity in aquatic vascular plants”, The Botanical Review, vol. 70(3), pp. 313-327, 2004.
 Pahlsson A.B, “Toxicity of heavy metals (Zn,Cu,Cd,Pb) to vascular plants”. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, vol 47(3-4), pp. 287-319.
 Galvez Cloutier R and Dube J.S, “Impact of residual NAPL on water flow and heavy metal transfer ina multimodal grain size soil under saturation conditions: Implications for contaminant mobility”, ASTM Special Technical Publication, West Conshohocken, pp 126-137, 2002.
 Poly.B and Sreedeep.S, “Influence of soil-multiple contaminant retention parameters on contaminant fate prediction”, Journal of hazardous, toxic and radioactive waste management, vol. 15(3), pp. 180-187, 2011.
 Environmental Protection Agency – EPA. “Land farming In: How to evaluate alternative cleanup technologies for underground storage tank sites: A guide for corrective action Plan reviews”. EPA 510-B-94- 003 and EPA 510-B- 95-007, .1994.
 Mahajan B.k, “Methods in biostatistics for medical students and research workers”, 6th Edition,Jaypee Brothers, New Delhi,India,1997.
phytoremediation, toxicity, Pennisetum pedicellatum, PAH, heavy metal contamination.