Scanning Electron Microscopic Study on Pollens of 8 Bee Floral Resources from Kangra Hills, Himachal Pradesh, India

International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology (IJBTT)
© 2020 by IJBTT Journal
Volume - 10 Issue - 1                          
Year of Publication : 2020
Authors : Sunita Saklani, V. K. Mattu
DOI :  10.14445/22490183/IJBTT-V10I1P611


MLA Style:Sunita Saklani, V. K. Mattu"Scanning Electron Microscopic Study on Pollens of 8 Bee Floral Resources from Kangra Hills, Himachal Pradesh, India" International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology 10.1 (2020): 67-71.

APA Style:Sunita Saklani, V. K. Mattu. Scanning Electron Microscopic Study on Pollens of 8 Bee Floral Resources from Kangra Hills, Himachal Pradesh, India  International Journal of Biotech Trends and Technology, 10(1), 67-71.


Scanning electron microscopic study on pollens of eight important bee floral resources collected from Kangra hills of Himachal Pradesh were carried. Pollens grains were investigated for size, shape, types of pores, exine sculptures and aggregation. Size of studied pollens varies from 14 ?m X 12.8 ?m in Eucalyptus sp. to 48.5 ?m X 40 ?m in Grevillea robusta. Shapes present were round, oval, triangular and types of aperture were pore in Taraxacum officinalis and Grevillea robusta whereas others were colpa and colporate. Six different types of exine sculpture were present i.e. fenestrate in Taraxacum officinalis; verrucate in Largerstroemia indica; Reticulate in Plectranthus rugosus and Grewia optiva; Faveolate in Melia azaderach; Scabrate in Eucalyptus sp. and Grevillea robusta; Striate in Litchi chinensis. Aggregation present were of single types in all pollen grains. This Scanning Electron Microscopic studies helpful in accurate identification of pollen types present in honey samples, construction of reference pollen data of particular place and therefore useful in palynology and melissopalynology.


[1] J. T. Overpeck, R.S. Webb, III T. Webb, Mapping North American vegetation change of the past 18a: No analog and the future, Geology, 20, 1992, 1071-1074.
[2] S.T. Jackson, J.W. Williama, Modern analogs in Quarternary paleoecology: here today, gone yesterday, gone tomorrow?, Annual Review of Earth and planetary science, 32, 2004, 495-537.
[3] M. Sivaguru, L. Mander, G. Fried, S. W. Punyasena, Capturing the Surface texture and shape of pollen: A Comparison of Microscopy techniques, PloS ONE 7(6), 2012, e39129. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039129.
[4] M. Sabo, M. Potacnjak, I. Banjari, D. Petrovic, Pollen analysis of honeys from Varazdin Country, Croatia, Turk. J. Bot, 35, 2011, 581-587.
[5] J. Louveaux, A. Maurizio, G. Vorwohl, Methods of melissopalynology, Bee World 59, 1978, 139-1578.
[6] P. C. Molan, The limitation of the methods of identifying the floral source of honey: Honey research unit, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato,Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, NewZealand, 1998, 59-68.
[7] A. Terrab, B. Valdes, M. J. Diez, Pollen analysis of honeys from the Mamora forest region (N.W. Morocco), Grana, 42(1), 2003, 47-54.
[8] E. Crane, Bees, Honey and Pollen as indicators of metal in the environment, Bee World, 55, 1984, 47-49.
[9] K. N. Paudyal, I. Gautam, SEM investigation of pollen taxa in honeys from Autochtone Apis cerana in Godavari, Lalitpur district, Nepal, Journal of Natural History Museum, 26, 2012, 29-67.
[10] R. Ponnuchamy, V. P. S. Bonhomme, L. Das, P. Patel, C. Gaucherel, A. Pragasam, A. Krishnamurthy, Honey Pollen : Using Melissopalynology to understand foraging preferences of bees in tropical South India, PloS ONE, 9(7), 2014, E101618.
[11] M. Sahne, S. Rahi, A. Kumar, R. Jaiswal, Melissopalynological studies on winter honeys from Allahbad, Uttar Pradesh, India, Palynology, 42(4), 2018, 540-552.
[12] O. Van Laere, A. Lagasse, MDe. Mets, Use of the scanning electron microscope for investigating pollen grains isolated from honey samples, Journal of Apicultural. Research, 8, 1969, 139-145.
[13] S. H. Chen, C. Shen, An ultrastructural study of Formosan honey pollen (1), Taiwania, 35, 1990, 221-239.
[14] R. Sawyer, Pollen identification for Beekeepers. Cardiff, U.K.: University College Cardiff Press, 1981.
[15] G. Vorwohl, Bee Flora of the Hindu Kush Himalayas. Personal communication (ed. Uma Partap): International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal, 1990.
[16] R. Aftab, A. Perveen, A Palynological study of some cultivated trees from Karachi, Pakistan Journal of Botany, 2006, 15-28.
[17] M. Ahmad, F. A. Ozdimir, M. Zafar, S. Ahmad, S. Sultana, Bee flora of Himalayan region (Pakistan) for sustainable rural development using SEM techniques for pollen identification, ULUSLARARASI ARICILIK ARASTIRMALARI VE SURDURULEBILIR KIRSAL KALKINMA STRATIJILERI KONGRESI EKIMBINGUL, 2019, 11-13.
[18] F. S. P. Nair, Pollen morphology of Angiosperm, New York: Barnes and Noble, 1970.
[19] A. Perveen, M. Qaiser, “Pollen flora of Pakistan’’, In: Proceeding of Int. Sym. On Plant life of S. West Asia and Central Asia, (Ed): M Ozturk, O. Secunen & G Gork, 1997, 795-835.
[20] C. Suwanphakdee, S. Mauthon, Y. Chantaranother Paopun, Palynological study of Piper L (Piperaceae) in Thailand,. KKU Science Journal. 36, 2008, 51-57.
[21] K. N. Paudayal, I. Gautam, Scanning electron microscopic studies on surface pattern of pollen loads from Apis cerana in Jajarkot district, Nepalian Journal of Science and Technology, 12, 2011a, 340-349.
[22] K. N. Paudayal, I. Gautam, Palynological study of pollen loads of Apis cerana in Bajhang district, West Nepal using scanning electron microscope, Perspectives on Higher Education, Journal of TUTA University Campus, 6, 2011b, 77-86.
[23] D. K. Ferguson, R. Zetter, K. N. Paudayal, The need for SEM in palaeopalynology, Comptes Rendus Palevolume, 6(6-7), 2007, 423-430.

Scanning electron microscopy, Pollens grain, Palynology, melissopalynology.